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Lot n° 5


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Diurnal (Cistercian usage)
In Latin (with some rubrics in Middle Low German), decorated manuscript on paper.
Northwest Germany, Westphalia (Dortmund area?), or Saxony (Magdeburg?), ca. 1490-1500 (after 1476).
234 ff, on paper (watermark close to Briquet, no. 4233, "heart surmounted by a cross": Holland, Utrecht (1494), Worms (1495); Cologne (1495)), a few leaves missing at the end, probably also missing text between ff. 26-27 (collation: i6, ii6, iii8, iv6 (8-2, last two leaves of the quire missing), v8, vi8, vii8, viii8, ix8, x8, xi8, xii8, xiii8, xiv8, xv8, xvi8, xvii8, xviii8, xix8, xx8, xxi8, xxiii8, xxiv8, xxv8, xxvi8, xxvii8, xxviii8, xxix8, xxx8 (missing leaves at the end, possibly a quire)), signatures of quires in Roman numerals on the verso of the last leaf of each quire (last signature: XXVIII), Gothic script in brown ink, text in a single column (justification: 63 x 95 mm), headings in red (some headings in Middle Low German, e.g. f. 36v, "Dusse antifona salmen per ordinem op [...] syngen"; f. 38, "Op sunte Thomas dach salmen dussen... "), small initials in alternating red or blue ink (1 to 2 lines high), other larger initials painted in blue, red or burnished gold with openwork decoration and sometimes a filigree decoration, large puzzle initials in blue and burnished gold (8 lines high) with pale red filigree decoration and decoration extending into the margins with foliage, gold besants and small green leaves, blue flowers or bird (f. 27, 85, 107).
Hardcover, paper cover, five-ribbed spine, title in ink in the first interleaf: "Diurnale. MS.
Saec. XV..." (Tears to the paper of the binding; a few interior stains but overall good condition). Dimensions: 135 x 95 mm.
This manuscript is a Diurnal, i.e. a liturgical book containing only the texts and hymns for the daytime canonical offices, from Lauds to Compline, excluding Matins. It is to be linked to the breviary. The present manuscript is preceded by a Cistercian calendar, to which obituaries of people from Westphalian families (Plettenberg; Brechten) have been added, and it is mentioned in the calendar that the monastery for which this manuscript was made is placed under the patronage of St. Agnes. The Cistercian nuns of Agneskloster in Magedebourg (Saxony) or the Cistercian nuns of Fürstenberg (in Xanten; the Plettenberg and Fürstenberg families are linked by marriage) are also uncertain. It is also suggested that this manuscript be compared with the production of manuscripts made by and/or for the nuns of Medingen (Lower Saxony), also a Cistercian foundation, whose decorations offer interesting comparisons and bear witness to the "nonnenarbeiten" of the Cistercian nuns. See the Medingen manuscripts digitization project:
Provenance 1. Manuscript copied and decorated for an unidentified Cistercian abbey, but also linked to the Benedictines (which is logical, as the Cistercians follow the rule of St. Benedict). The calendar closely follows the one used by the Cistercians (see Waddell (2007); Backaert (1950-1951). The following Cistercian saints should be noted in the calendar: William of Bourges (January 10), Bernard of Clairvaux (in red, "Bernardi patris nostri" [Bernard, our patron saint] (August 19) and "Octava Bernar[di]" (August 26), Robert of Molesme, founder and first abbot of Cîteaux (April 29), Hugo (also April 29 in this calendar), Malachy (November 5), and Edmond of Abingdon, who was buried at Pontigny (November 16). The Benedictines are represented with the red "Benedicti abbatis" (March 21) and the "Translatio sancti Benedicti" (July 11). Also noteworthy are the "commemorative" feasts, often present in Cistercian calendars: "Commemoratio episcoporum et abbatum ordinis" (10 January); "Commemoratio fundatorum" (June 4); "Commemoratio parentum" (November 19). Finally, we note the solemnities granted to Saint Martin ("Translatio sancti Martini" (July 4) and in red on November 11) and Saint Lawrence (in red, August 10).
This manuscript was most certainly copied after 1476 because the calendar includes the feast of the Visitation with 12 lessons (July 2), a solemnity adopted by the Cistercians after 1476. Also to be noted in the calendar is the feast of Saint Anne with 12 lessons (July 26): this modification to the Cistercian calendar dates from 1454.
Note, in red: "Agnetis virgina. Patrona hujus clau[...]" (17 January, f. 1v). The manuscript is thus copied for the use of a monastery whose patron saint is Agnes. There is an Agneskloster in Magdeburg (Saxony), a monastery of Cistercian nuns. In the same city there is a "Martinikirche" dedicated to St. Martin and a S

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